Braking Action Reports And Runway Friction Reports

4-3-8. Braking Action Reports and Advisories

a. When available, ATC furnishes pilots the quality of braking action received from pilots or airport management. The quality of braking action is described by the terms “good,” “fair,” “poor,” and “nil,” or a combination of these terms. When pilots report the quality of braking action by using the terms noted above, they should use descriptive terms that are easily understood, such as, “braking action poor the first/last half of the runway,” together with the particular type of aircraft.

b. For NOTAM purposes, braking action reports are classified according to the most critical term (“fair,” “poor,” or “nil”) used and issued as a NOTAM(D).

c. When tower controllers have received runway braking action reports which include the terms poor or nil, or whenever weather conditions are conducive to deteriorating or rapidly changing runway braking conditions, the tower will include on the ATIS broadcast the statement, “BRAKING ACTION ADVISORIES ARE IN EFFECT.”

d. During the time that braking action advisories are in effect, ATC will issue the latest braking action report for the runway in use to each arriving and departing aircraft. Pilots should be prepared for deteriorating braking conditions and should request current runway condition information if not volunteered by controllers. Pilots should also be prepared to provide a descriptive runway condition report to controllers after landing.

刹车效应报告由“好中差”和“无”构成。由飞行员报告,主观感觉差异较大。当刹车效应报告不佳,或有影响刹车效应的情况出现时,管制员要在ATIS中报 “BRAKING ACTION ADVISORIES ARE IN EFFECT.”

4-3-9. Runway Friction Reports and Advisories

a. Friction is defined as the ratio of the tangential force needed to maintain uniform relative motion between two contacting surfaces (aircraft tires to the pavement surface) to the perpendicular force holding them in contact (distributed aircraft weight to the aircraft tire area). Simply stated, friction quantifies slipperiness of pavement surfaces.

b. The greek letter MU (pronounced “myew”), is used to designate a friction value representing runway surface conditions.

c. MU (friction) values range from 0 to 100 where zero is the lowest friction value and 100 is the maximum friction value obtainable. For frozen contaminants on runway surfaces, a MU value of 40 or less is the level when the aircraft braking performance starts to deteriorate and directional control begins to be less responsive. The lower the MU value, the less effective braking performance becomes and the more difficult directional control becomes.

d. At airports with friction measuring devices, airport management should conduct friction measurements on runways covered with compacted snow and/or ice.

1. Numerical readings may be obtained by using any FAA approved friction measuring device. As these devices do not provide equal numerical readings on contaminated surfaces, it is necessary to designate the type of friction measuring device used.

2. When the MU value for any one-third zone of an active runway is 40 or less, a report should be given to ATC by airport management for dissemination to pilots. The report will identify the runway, the time of measurement, the type of friction measuring device used, MU values for each zone, and the contaminant conditions, e.g., wet snow, dry snow, slush, deicing chemicals, etc. Measurements for each one-third zone will be given in the direction of takeoff and landing on the runway. A report should also be given when MU values rise above 40 in all zones of a runway previously reporting a MU below 40.

3. Airport management should initiate a NOTAM(D) when the friction measuring device is out of service.

e. When MU reports are provided by airport management, the ATC facility providing approach control or local airport advisory will provide the report to any pilot upon request.

f. Pilots should use MU information with other knowledge including aircraft performance characteristics, type, and weight, previous experience, wind conditions, and aircraft tire type (i.e., bias ply vs. radial constructed) to determine runway suitability.

g. No correlation has been established between MU values and the descriptive terms “good,” “fair,” “poor,” and “nil” used in braking action reports.

跑道摩擦系数MU,从0至100,0为最差。当冰冻的污染物覆盖跑道,MU低于40,表明飞机的刹车效果开始恶化,方向控制开始失去响应。当三分之一的跑道开始出现MU小于40的情况时,MU的数值就应该由机场当局报告给ATC以便通知到飞行员。当MU值回升至40以上时,同样也要报告。MU值和刹车效应之间没有关联。(据性能人员称,两者之间还是有联系的)

在SNOTAM的H项有个类似的内容,MU值也是从0.40以下开始计算的。虽然表格没有明确说MU值和刹车效应之间一一对应的关系,但至少暗示了其中的关系。就凑活着用吧。

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