34:1 Surface Clear Stipple Symbol On RNAV approach charts, a small shaded arrowhead shaped symbol from the end of the VDA to the runway indicates that the 34:1 Obstacle Clearance Surface (OCS) for the visual segment is clear of obstacles. The absence of the symbol indicates that the 34:1 OCS is not clear or a Visual Segment-Obstacles note is indicated on the chart.
Visual Decent Point (VDP) The Visual Descent Point (VDP), is shown by a bold letter “V” positioned above the procedure track and centered on the accompanying dashed line. (See example below.) The VDP is a defined point on the final approach course of a nonprecision straight-in approach procedure from which normal descent from the MDA to the runway touchdown point may be commenced.
AIM 5-1-4 Flight Plan – VFR Flights Except for operations in or penetrating an ADIZ, a flight plan is not required for VFR flight. It is strongly recommended that a flight plan (for a VFR flight) be filed with an FAA FSS. This will ensure that you receive VFR Search and Rescue Protection.
When aware of similar/identical call signs, ATC specialists will take action to minimize errors by emphasizing certain numbers/letters, by repeating the entire call sign, by repeating the prefix, or by asking pilots to use a different call sign temporarily.
2. Displaced Threshold. A displaced threshold is a threshold located at a point on the runway other than the designated beginning of the runway. Displacement of a threshold reduces the length of runway available for landings. The portion of runway behind a displaced threshold is available for takeoffs in either direction and landings from the opposite direction.。。。。
ICAO 附件14 3. Calculation of declared distances
3.5 Where a runway has a displaced threshold, then the LDA will be reduced by the distance the threshold is dis-placed, as shown in Figure A-1 (D). A displaced threshold affects only the LDA for approaches made to that threshold; all declared distances for operations in the reciprocal（双向） direction are unaffected.
An individual microburst will seldom last longer than 15 minutes from the time it strikes the ground until dissipation. The horizontal winds continue to increase during the first 5 minutes with the maximum intensity winds lasting approximately 2−4 minutes. Sometimes microbursts are concentrated into a line structure, and under these conditions, activity may continue for as long as an hour. Once microburst activity starts, multiple microbursts in the same general area are not uncommon and should be expected.
Low Level Wind Shear Alert System (LLWAS),Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR), WeatherSystem Processor (WSP), and Integrated TerminalWeather System (ITWS) display information on hazardous wind shear and microburst activity in the vicinity of an airport to air traffic controllers who relay this information to pilots.
a. LLWAS provides wind shear alert and gust front information but does not provide microburst alerts. The LLWAS is designed to detect low level wind
shear conditions around the periphery of an airport. It does not detect wind shear beyond that limitation. Controllers will provide this information to pilots by giving the pilot the airport wind followed by the boundary wind.
EXAMPLE: Wind shear alert, airport wind 230 at 8, south boundary wind 170 at 20.
b. LLWAS “network expansion,” (LLWAS NE) and LLWAS Relocation/Sustainment (LLWAS RS) are systems integrated with TDWR. These systems provide the capability of detecting microburst alerts and wind shear alerts. Controllers will issue the appropriate wind shear alerts or microburst alerts. In some of these systems controllers also have the ability to issue wind information oriented to the threshold or departure end of the runway.
EXAMPLE: Runway 17 arrival microburst alert, 40 knot loss 3 mile final.